By Art Bomke and Wayne Temple
Art Bomke is a SPEC Director and co-wrote this piece for the Delta Farmland & Wildlife Trust newsletter. You can find the complete article here.
In the Beginning: It’s hard to believe that nearly 25 years have flown by since the inception of the Delta Farmland and Wildlife Trust (DF&WT). In spite of all of the tensions and misunderstandings of the day, there was truly a window of opportunity in 1992 to mobilize a community conservation effort. Arguably the most important contribution was from Mayor Beth Johnson’s Delta Municipal government led by Councilor Wendy Jeske. Delta provided a conciliatory meeting environment, as well as technical and legal advice that enabled farmers and conservationists to come together to work out the details of an organization that would even-handedly strive to conserve and enhance wildlife habitat and support the sustainability of Delta farmers and their land base.
Landscape Approach: The principle espoused by the founders was that wildlife conservation efforts were best served by engaging and supporting the farmers who manage most of the uplands across the Fraser delta. This represented a policy change on behalf of the Government of Canada and the Canadian Wildlife Service. Regional Manager, Art Martell, and his staff deserve credit for shifting emphasis from the purchase of farmland to supporting conservation programs on farmer owned or rented land. Also, the vision for a landscape approach centered on the skills and knowledge of Delta farmers must be credited to the farmers themselves, notably Hugh Reynolds, John Malenstyn and Robert Savage.
Wayne’s World: Coincident with the efforts to preserve and enhance wildlife habitat, the UBC Soil Conservation Group was working under the auspices of the Delta Farmers Institute to develop practical approaches to reversing soil degradation as exemplified by poor soil structure, impeded drainage and declining organic matter. Much of the on-farm project work was led by Dr. Wayne Temple, a versatile researcher who was as comfortable on a tractor as in the lab or at the computer. From this joint effort arose two programs that did double duty in improving soil health and creating habitat.
Greenfields: For a number of reasons, the Fraser delta had a high proportion of bare soils, especially during the rainy season. The Greenfields Project pioneered over-winter cover crops to protect soils, add organic matter and provide upland forage for waterfowl. It morphed into the longstanding Winter Cover Crop Program of the DF&WT.
Presented by the SPEC Energy & Transportation Committee
For Vancouver residents hoping to reduce energy consumption at home, switching from a clothes dryer to a clothesline is an easy and affordable option. Yet some residents hoping to use clotheslines are being denied their right to dry.
If you live in a strata complex and have tried to hang-dry your clothing outside, odds are you have been reprimanded. That is because B.C. allows residential buildings to ban clotheslines for aesthetic purposes. Many stratas have a bylaw which states:
“A resident must ensure that no air conditioning units, laundry, flags, clothing, bedding or other articles are hung or displayed from windows, balconies or other parts of the building so that they are visible from outside of the building.”
However, it is important for residents to have the option to use a clothesline, both for saving energy and money. It is estimated that clothes dryers make up 9% of residential electricity consumption in BC. If just half of condo and apartment owners in B.C. line-dried their clothes for even one quarter of the year it would result in savings of 60 million kilowatt hours every year. That is over 1 million kg of CO2e GHG emissions per year!
The governments of Ontario, Nova Scotia and six U.S. states have passed legislation to overrule clothesline bans and SPEC’s Energy & Transportation Committee believes that B.C. should be next. The committee is currently working with a team of UBC students to research the importance of having the right to dry, with the intention of petitioning the public and bringing the results to the Vancouver City Council.
If you want to learn more about Right to Dry, come to the next Energy & Transportation Committee meeting on February 21, or stay tuned for updates on our research.
Jon Howland’s Original Report on Sightline from 2012: http://www.sightline.org/2012/05/16/does-bc-mean-bans-clotheslines/
Business in Vancouver follow-up to Howland’s article:
Credit to Rob Baxter from Vancouver Renewable Energy and SPEC’s Energy Committee for assisting with research.
Additional article from BuzzBuzzNews Canada:
This summer, Shambhala Music Festival celebrated their 20th year anniversary at Salmo River Ranch, and in honour of their anniversary Shambhala launched The Greater Good Contribution Contest.
The Greater Good Contribution Contest celebrates Shambhala camps that make a positive impact on the Shambhala experience, local communities, or abroad. The three winners of the contest are awarded $15,000 split amongst first, second, and third place to donate to their charity of choice. This year, The Party Pocket Camp won first place, with $10,000 donated to their charity of choice: Society Promoting Environmental Conservation!
We at SPEC are so grateful for this recognition from fellow environmentalists, and want to highlight the Party Pocket’s story as an inspiration for how sustainability can be a part of partying.
Check out this story from Andee, a member from the Party Pocket crew, about how their camp got started.
A big thank you to Shambhala Music Festival and the Party Pocket!
“This past summer we wanted to camp with a large group of friends but we were hesitant that it would be messy and stressful. No one wants to party like that! So we started getting together on planning after making a Facebook group. I made a friend who is the leader of a large and well known camp to ask for tips and tricks. He said the most important thing was having a mission - something we could all agree and focus on. That was when we decided to take sustainability really seriously as a camp, as we do in our lives. It inspired us and we started figuring out ways to manage waste in the bush and making commitments to properly recycling anything possible. We picked up some reusable plates/bowls/cutlery and some laundry bins that we could use as organized waste bins. All were on board for how we were doing it, we have a very strong team!
At Shambhala, we encouraged our neighbours to use our bins and did educational outreach where we could. We had a large crew to save space for and teach about our mission as well. My partner and I went around cleaning dance floors and included other dancers in the process. Dance floor and festival garbage has always upset me on a deep level and I am so, SO happy that we could make a legitimate and tangible difference this way.
Shambhala recognizing that their waste stream organization is flawed is a huge win for transformational festivals, as well as the Salmo River. Acknowledging us as winners means they want our help, that they want to be better. Liz and I, as well as The Pocket, are incredibly excited to take our camp missions to the next level next summer and we hope to do it with you!”
And the camp’s sustainability mission does not end at Shambhala. Andee also runs a street cleaning initiative called The Butt Touchers, which picks up and recycles cigarette butts from Commercial Dr. and many Party Pocket members are also involved!
If you would like to read more about how the Party Pocket made a difference at the festival, Shambhala has a great description of the camp on their website.
So where does SPEC come in? Evan Cronmiller, another member of the Party Pocket, said SPEC was a logical choice of charity since we share similar values concerning sustainability, waste management, and other things "green". He and other Party Pocket members were “thrilled to have won the contest and to be able to donate the winnings to a worthy cause such as the SPEC.”
SPEC is so grateful for this recognition, and we want to thank Andee and Evan Cronmiller for sharing their stories and choosing SPEC as their preferred charity, everyone at The Party Pocket Camp for being sustainability superstars, and Shambhala Music Festival for this generous donation!
By Chris Gooderham, a member of SPEC's Board and the Energy & Transportation Committee
As road traffic in the Vancouver area increases with the use of more vehicles, bicycles, e-bikes, skateboards, and other modes of transportation, taking a good look at the "Motor Vehicle Act" is long overdue. Simply put, the Motor Vehicle Act needs to include all types of transportation methods and be updated regularly to ensure safety.
Not too long ago, I was driving my car one rainy evening and I approached a roundabout that I had used many times on one of our many bike routes. As visibility isn't great, I'm going quite slow, and upon entering the roundabout, I come in contact with a cyclist. Fortunately, we both stopped before any impact. Why did this happen? The cyclist forgot to turn on his headlamp and he was completely invisible to me. Luckily for both of us, he and I were travelling at a speed that allowed us to react in time and avoid injury.
The biggest misconception is the Motor Vehicle Act does not apply to cyclists, as they aren't motor vehicles. This of course is false, and one of the many reasons the Motor Vehicle act needs to be updated.
Please take a moment and reach out to your MLA to ask for their support in getting the Motor Vehicle act of BC updated through the HUB community link.
If you are interested in this topic and want to volunteer and meet like-minded people, join us at our next SPEC Energy & Transportation Committee meeting on December 20th at 2305 West 7th Ave. Please double check the events page closer to December to confirm the date.
Chris previously wrote on this topic in August; check out that blog post here.
By Robin Hadac
Robin has been SPEC’s outreach facilitator since January. She wrote this piece for her course on climate change.
From the Elephant Hill Fire in the Ashcroft/Cache Creek area. Photo by Chris Gooderham. Be sure to check out the rest of the photos at the end of the blog piece.
One summer evening this July, I walked to Kits Beach to watch the sunset. The sky was lit up an unusually dark orange, with a noticeable haze in the horizon. Little did I know, that evening would only be the beginning of a long reign of smoke and haze clouding the lower mainland. The 2017 fire season had started in BC, and it was going to be one of the worst ones in BC history.
Like many other areas of the world, BC has a historical pattern of summer fires. However, fire seasons in recent years have been more severe. The summer of 2015, a notable fire year for BC, had 1,858 total fires with 280,000 hectares (Ha) burned. More recently, 2017 had a record-breaking amount of land burned with significant impact to human lives. Since April 2017 to September 2017, 1,282 fires were reported, with 1,212,000 Ha. (12,120 sq km) burned across BC. For comparison, that is over four times the size of Metro Vancouver, and almost half the size of the lower mainland.
Air quality was one of the most widespread effects to humans this season, even in areas far away from active fires. On an Air Quality Index out of 10, certain parts of BC received “very high risk” air quality scores of 18 and even as high as 36.
Forest fires and other disturbances are normally part of a healthy ecosystem. Fires can stimulate new growth by opening up the canopy to sunlight, release valuable nutrients stored in the forest floor, and allow certain tree species to reproduce by opening up cones (Natural Resources Canada, 2016). However, there is clear evidence to suggest that climate change is impacting BC’s forests, affecting fire probability and severity.
Climate change is resulting in an increase in average global temperatures. While there is variation in temperature differences and effects depending on location, BC on average is experiencing warmer weather, hotter temperatures, and more water vapor in the air. You can see more of the ways climate change has affected BC here.
This can mean more precipitation, which might boost plant growth and be beneficial for some forests. However, warming climates are altering the seasonality of rainfall. Most precipitation is falling in the fall and winter, leaving summer to be hot and dry. Glaciers are also melting earlier, contributing to earlier run-offs and drier summers (The Climate Examiner, 2017).
When water stocks are decreasing faster than usual, the resulting droughts and drier summers can impact a forest’s health and make trees vulnerable to insects and pathogens. When forests and foliage die, it increases the amount of fuel for burning and the probability of fires. (van der Kamp, 2016; Natural Resources Canada 2017).
With conditions dry and prime for fires, there just needs to be a spark. Studies show that the probability of lightning, which on average is responsible for 61% of BC fires, increases by 12% per each degree Celsius of warming.
But the cycle does not end there; the increase in forest fires creates an amplifying feedback loop. As climate change increases rate and intensity of fires, the CO2 emissions given off from forest fires further contributes to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
While official reports will not be available until next year, it is estimated that the 2017 fires emitted 190 million tonnes of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. That is almost triple BC’s annual carbon footprint. In addition, data from the last 25 years suggests that fire emissions are only increasing. Between 2003 and 2012, 271 million tonnes of CO2 were emitted from forest fires over the 10 year span. Compare this to the previous 10 years (1993-2002), where only 41 million tonnes of CO2 were emitted (Wieting, 2015).
In conclusion, the mechanisms by which climate change affects forest fire intensity and probability rate include many factors, but can be simplified as follows; temperatures are increasing, altering precipitation levels available for growth and increasing fire fuels. Those fires then release greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere, creating a feedback loop and exacerbating the issue. As Natural Resources Canada puts it, “One thing is clear: the future will not be like the past.”
The logging road to Chris's cabin. "It used to be 14ft wide, but BC Wildfire team used it as a firebreak and now its 25ft wide road with another 25ft of clearcut."
"Putting out a fire deep underground where 2 logs continued to burn, they happen to extend under our driveway."
A trail that used to be extremely lush.
All photos are from SPEC Board member Chris Gooderham.
BC Wildfire Service. (2017). Current Statistics. Retrieved from http://bcfireinfo.for.gov.bc.ca/hprScripts/WildfireNews/Statistics.asp
Carman, T. (2017, Jul 29). Area of B.C. burned by wildfires at a 56-year high. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/area-of-b-c-burned-by-wildfires-at-a-56-year-high-1.4226227
Desmog Canada. (2017). Overview of Forest Fires in British Columbia. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020876
Elledge, J. (2016, May 26). Where are the world’s largest cities? Retrieved from http://www.citymetric.com/fabric/where-are-worlds-largest-cities-2131
Hernandez, J. (2017, Aug 24). “It”s alarming’: Wildfire emissions grow to triple B.C.’s annual carbon footprint. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/it-s-alarming-wildfire-emissions-grow-to-triple-b-c-s-annual-carbon-footprint-1.4259306
Johnson, L. (2017, Aug 2). Health risk from smoky skies off the charts in parts of B.C. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/smoke-bc-august-2-wildfires-1.4232156
Little, S., & Yuzda, L. (2017, Aug 16). 2017 officially B.C.’s worst ever wildfire season. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/3675434/2017-officially-b-c-s-worst-ever-wildfire-season/
National Resource Canada. (2017, May 10). Impacts. Retrieved from http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/climate-change/impacts/13095
Natural Resources Canada. (2016, May 20). Why forests need fires, insects and diseases. Retrieved October 2, 2017, from http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/fire-insects-disturbances/forest-need/13081
Province of British Columbia. (2017). Wildfire Averages. Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/safety/wildfire-status/wildfire-statistics/wildfire-averages
Suzuki, D. (2017, Aug 17). Wildfires are a climate change wake-up call. Retrieved from http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/science-matters/2017/08/wildfires-are-a-climate-change-wake-up-call/
The Climate Examiner. (2017, Jul 20). BC wildfires caused in part by and contributing to climate change. Retrieved from http://theclimateexaminer.ca/2017/07/20/bc-wildfires-caused-part-contributing-climate-change/
van der Kamp, D., & Metro Vancouver. (2016). Drought, wildfire, and climate change in Metro Vancouver’s water supply area. Metro Vancouver. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/Sustainability%20Scholars/2016%20Sustainability%20Scholars/Project%20Reports/Drought%2C%20Wildfire%2C%20and%20Climate%20Change%20in%20Metro%20Vancouver%27s%20Water%20Supply%20Area_van%20der%20Kamp_2016.pdf
Wieting, J. (2015). B.C. Forest Wake-Up Call: Heavy Carbon Losses Hit 10 Year Mark. Sierra Club BC, (June).
By Olga Lansdorp
Project Coordinator Climate Change Adaptation for Small Scale FarmersSociety Promoting Environmental Conservation
Have you ever had your eyes opened to a new way of seeing the world, to find that there is no turning back? I first experienced this when I was 18 and worked studying birds in the Rocky Mountains; suddenly the forest was alive with alarmed parents, begging chicks, predators, and males showing off, to name a few examples. It was a whole new world opening up before me, and I loved it.
I did not expect to have a similar experience at an IPM field day with experts Dru Yates and Kiara Jack of E.S. Cropconsult, organized for farmers to help them manage their diseases and insect pests. It wasn’t until the end that things got truly interesting. First we went over the principles of Integrated Pest Management, which produces economically feasible recommendations for farmers dealing with pests and diseases. It looks at proper identification, monitoring and thresholds for your diseases and pests, relying on Biological, Cultural, Physical and Chemical control options to deal with them.
Once we went over the theoretical background, we decided to go out on to the vegetable crops to identify pests and diseases. I thought it would take a lot of time to find a single insect, so I stood back and let the experts do the work. Within seconds Kiara cried “An aphid!”, followed shortly by “.., a parasitized aphid!”
Did you know that parasitic wasps lay they eggs inside a developing aphid larvae, turning the aphid into what is known as a mummy aphid? I certainly didn’t. A mummy aphid is a completely different colour from its sisters, a metallic shiny brown rather then green or black, and it also has a different shape, growing into a round blob rather than its more svelte sisters. Sometimes you can even see a round hole in the top of a mummy aphid: in this case, the wasp larvae burrowed out and flew away. IPM experts like to see mummy aphids, because they are a sign that the aphid populations are being controlled.
Within fifteen minutes there were many more examples of insect pests and beneficial insects. There were beneficial serphid larvae, tiny green larvae whose intestines you can see through their skin, and who move around as if there foot is tethered to the ground; there were tiny thrips and collembola who cause damage by sucking the leaves; weevils who cause characteristic notched damage to leaves; diamondback moth caterpillars, who are distinguished from similar species because they “freak out” when their heads are poked, moving their heads rapidly back and forth while they back up away from the stimulus. There is a whole world of creatures whose unique characteristics make them either a pest or a beneficial to farmers.
By knowing more about the insects and diseases farmers open themselves up to new methods of control. For example, many beneficial insects are limited by water availability, so including some buckets of water between plants may boost their populations. Or a young seedling being eaten by wood-lice or sow-bugs may be helped by spreading diatomaceous earth, which clogs up breathing organs and cuts up soft-bodied organisms.
It was an eye-opening experience to explore the farm fields with experts Dru and Kiara. Near the end of the day Dru cried out “An aphidoletes larva!!” Kiara rushed over to have a look, and together they counted 5 of these orange midge larvae, voracious aphid-eaters, which they were not expecting to see. It was good to see that they were still just as excited as I am about new creatures after all these years of monitoring crops.
The Climate Change Adaptation for Small Scale Farmers project is supported by Vancity enviroFund, Vancouver Foundation, SPEC individual donors, the Gow-Jarrett -Millard Family and Whole Foods Market.
SPEC Fundraiser and Celebration Speech,
by Janey Lee
Thursday, September 14, 2017
Good evening everyone. My name is Janey Lee and for the past 19 years I have been proudly teaching at Thunderbird Elementary. Thunderbird is a Tier 1 inner city, east side school in Vancouver. Thunderbird is located across the street from the largest social housing project in the province which is where many of our students live. In our school, we have a lot of students from working poor families, single parent households, and immigrant and refugee families. Each year, I usually have 8 to 12 different languages represented in my classroom and it is beautifully diverse. We have many vulnerable students who in spite of the challenges that their families face, are resilient and amazing.
In February of 2012, our school formed a wonderful community partnership with SPEC after Russ Evan, the tech teacher from Tupper, worked with all the students at our school to help build 4 beautiful planters and a compost bin so that we can start a community garden at Thunderbird.
School gardens are so important as it engages learners on how to grow food and provide food systems that are sustainable. Today, I would like to share with you what I have seen as some the benefits of having SPEC deliver “school garden education” at Thunderbird over the past 5 years.
There are few, if any, opportunities for many of our students to be exposed to gardens and gardening as many of them do not have a yard. This is where SPEC comes in. The biggest benefit I see is that the SPEC “garden education program” compensates for this missed opportunity by connecting our students to food, to nature and to their environment by introducing the power of gardening. The Thunderbird school garden is an empowering way to engage our students in real life experiences, where they learn about food security and how to grow their own organic fruits and veggies.
The children are always highly engaged in all the fun and hands-on lessons and activities, which SPEC provides. It just ignites their curiosity and passion. It warms my heart to see the sheer joy and excitement exuding from our students as they learn about soil, worm composting, how seeds travel, flowers and pollinators and especially insects in the garden. Each year, Nikoo, the amazing SPEC coordinator, who runs the lessons, even spends the day at our school dressed up in a bee costume when she is teaching the children about flowers and pollinators. They just adore her and she has a great rapport with our students.
In addition to the fabulous SPEC lessons that Nikoo provides throughout the school year, we also use the Thunderbird school garden as an “outdoor classroom”. Throughout the year, our students will bring out magnifying glasses, string and meter sticks to observe, measure, compare and discuss about the different types of plants that are growing. You will often see our Thunderbird students outdoors with clip boards and pens making observational drawings of leaves, plants, flowers and even insects they see in the garden. It is easy to see the students’ overriding sense of pride and ownership of the school garden they so fondly care for.
One of the highlights brought about by the SPEC “garden education program” is the “year end harvest and celebration” in June. It is difficult to get parent volunteers into our school as many are working multiple minimum wage jobs or they may be intimidated to come in because of language barriers. However, when it comes to harvest time, we have many parents who are eager to help harvest the wide range of vegetables and plants from the planters with their children. The school garden has helped to transcend some of these language barriers and has helped to bring our community closer together.
Another fabulous partnership that came out of the gardening program was that Murray, the youth worker at Van Tech, who helps to transition at-risk grade 7s to highschool collaborated with Nikoo from SPEC. They worked together to support Thunderbird’s grade 7 leadership group. In the Spring, these students helped to maintain our school garden with jobs such as building trellises for the peas and also composting. The “Leadership and Resiliency Program” that Murray runs has a large outdoor propane oven. The Thunderbird leadership students came up with the brilliant idea of using some of the vegetables that were harvested to make pizzas in this outdoor oven for the year end harvest celebration. These students had the opportunity to proudly prepare, cook and serve the garden pizzas to over 200 students at our school during our afternoon harvest celebration. The garden pizzas were a huge hit and the kids were keen for 2nd and 3rd helpings. What an empowering learning opportunity these grade 7 students had to be able to display their leadership skills in such a positive way. They also gained valuable life experiences in helping to give back to their own school and community.
To conclude, the benefits and impact of the SPEC “garden education program” can not be underestimated. We would love for you to come join us at our school for a lesson and to watch the children in action to truly experience the joy and excitement the school garden program brings to our students. On behalf of the Thunderbird community, I would like to thank the generous donors and other community partners for your continued support of SPEC. Please know that you are making a lasting and positive difference by providing our appreciative students the opportunity to participate in the SPEC “garden education program” and for that we are most grateful. Thank you.
Teacher at Thunderbird Elementary
By Dr. Art Bomke, SPEC Director
The article (See link) in the September 8th Vancouver Sun refers to recent census data that is reflecting a loss of farms and fewer farmers in Metro Vancouver.
It may seem odd that an urban based environmental organization like SPEC would be engaged in supporting local farmers, however, our ongoing Climate Change Adaptation Project for Small Scale Farmers is clearly aimed at two of the concerns mentioned in the piece, “willingness of the existing farm base to be there" and “transference of knowledge for the next generation.” The problem is current, not something to be faced in the future although climate change adaptation will likely change the future farming environment. As such, we have been striving to forge collaborations with several other NGO, government, university and private sector organizations to provide more on-farm advice in managing soils, crops and protecting crops against insect pests and diseases.
We at SPEC believe that the vast majority of urban Metro Vancouver residents are interested in and supportive of local farmers and our goal is to direct that support to practical solutions to the problems facing new farmers currently and those arising with changing climate.
Art Bomke, Director
SPEC Food and Environment Committee
By Daniel Rotman
Daniel is a co-facilitator of Master Recycler Vancouver.
I'm a strong believer in the idea that sustainability requires us (all of us) to reach beyond our circles and networks and biases to empower change. It won't be easy and it won't look like we think it will.
Take ZooShare for example. This new project takes local animal and food waste to feed an anaerobic digester that then produces energy and fertilizer for the local community, closing the loop on those resources. The bio-gas cooperative is working closely with Miller Waste, the Toronto Zoo, the local community, the local government and its 600 members/funders to make this happen.
Check out Lodge Farm in north Wales, another great example of how animal and food waste are being used locally from a corporate player.
Collaboration also helps us make others do and feel good! Those of us with the passion and energy can't do it all, so we can simply help others achieve what we all want, a sustainable future. It's not about being a hero, it's about cultivating heroes all around us.
DHL definitely puts the above into practice. How can a shipping company go net zero? They are empowering their employees by training them to help their customers ship more efficiently and through using zero emission, or carbon neutral delivery options. Have you seen their delivery bicycles? DHL is also developing their own in-house electric vehicle technology, and has been a sponsor of the Formula E racing series since it started in 2014.
Those of us who are doing everything in our power to move towards a greener, cleaner future, you are definitely not alone, and that's a message we all need to share.
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